D-aspartic Acid

D-aspartic acid or DAA is the isomeric form of L-aspartic acid. It is a hit in the sports supplement market. It has a specific metabolism associated with a group of receptors in the anterior brain, converting it to N-Methyl-D-Aspartate or NMDA.

DAA increases the levels of luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin, and follicle-stimulating hormone. It takes testosterone levels higher, and in result muscles and strength grow. But this may cost you some specific brain cells which function is irreplaceable.

It’s not just about more testosterone, it is much more complicated, and something can always go wrong. NMDA receptors in the brain are responsible for a specific activity in human behavior – the operative conditioning.

This is a process that allows us, people, to adapt spontaneously to various changes in the environment.

Thanks to these receptors, we feel a sense of success and interest when we succeed in doing something. But if they stop working the person develops Alzheimer’s or other central nervous system diseases.

D-aspartic acid was discovered more than fifty years ago. It has long been known that it kills NMDA receptors by excitement.

Do you think the benefit-risk ratio is worth? Read everything and decide for yourself.

 What is D-aspartic Acid?

D-asparagine (D-aspartic acid), also sometimes called D-aspartate, is a testosterone booster placed on the market for nutritional supplements. In fact, it is an amino acid, a spatial isomer of L-asparagine. Aspartate is one of the names of the carboxylated ions, salts or acid esters.

The left form (L-aspartic acid) of the amino acid is one of the twenty protein-forming amino acids and is found in almost all proteins in mammals, including the human body.

 What more do you need to know about D-aspartate?

Right or “D” form is mainly metabolized in the N-methyl-D-aspartate – a substance that stimulates NMDA receptors in the brain, similar to the effect of glutamate (MSG), but to a lesser degree.

NMDA receptors are unique biological structures. They are related to the plasticity of brain synapses and the memory capabilities of the brain. Receptors have a connection with the learning and testing of emotions in a positive result.

The trouble with these receptors is that over excitation leads to the destruction of the cell, and D-Aspartate same as glutamate does just that. The process is also known as excitotoxicity.

 D-aspartic acid chemical structure      

The molecular formula of D-aspartic acid is C4H7NO4.

Its molecular mass is 133.103 g / mol.

IUPAC name: 2-Aminobutanedioic acid.

The acid is also known as aminosuccinic acid, asparagic acid, asparaginic acid.

There are two forms or enantiomers (enantiomer – one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are not identical) of aspartic acid – L and D.

Although “Aspartic acid” can either refer an enantiomer or a mixture of these two forms, only one, “L-aspartic acid”, gets turned into proteins.

The biological roles the  “D-aspartic acid”, however, are more limited. Where enzymatic synthesis will produce only “L” one or only “D”, most chemical syntheses will produce both forms – “DL-aspartic acid”, known as a racemic mixture.

What is it used for?

D-aspartate and its analogs D-sodium-aspartate and N-Methyl-D-aspartate perform the function of neurotransmitters and neuro modulators. They also stimulate the synthesis of signal and enzyme proteins in nerve cells.

In the endocrine system, D-aspartate is associated with hormonal regulation. Increases levels of luteinizing hormone, gonadotrophin, and follicle-stimulating hormone. D-aspartate is аlso a stimulant for the synthesis of enzymes that stimulate growth in the production of own testosterone.

Health Benefits

Proven human benefits:

  • Increases the synthesis of testosterone and luteinizing hormone.
  • It leads to a rise in aromatase (an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens) synthesis due to increased testosterone, but it is claimed that direct stimulation by D-aspartate is also possible in separate in vitro studies.

Proven Benefits in Laboratory Animals and Cell Cultures:

  • Increases the synthesis of prolactin in rats (human studies are at an early stage, but similar/ similar action to rats is expected).
  • Increases the synthesis of growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in rodents (not yet tested on humans)
  • Increases production of progesterone (in humans and animals).
  • Stimulates GABA release (Gamma-aminobutyric acid), suppresses dopamine release, increases luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. GABA is a biogenic amino acid that is synthesized in the brain. It connects with states of calm and mental concentration. Helps in chronic anxiety by preventing neurons from being over-stimulated. GABA induces muscle relaxation. Her deficiency can lead to cramps and convulsions.

Unauthorized Claims:

  • A Permanent increase in testosterone levels – a decrease in the level is established in samples taken 3 days after discontinuation of the reception, i.e. the aromatase has done its job – it has lowered the testosterone level.

How does D-aspartate work?

D-sodium aspartate boosts two secondary signaling proteins: cAMP and cGMP.

  • cAMP is synthesized in Leydig cells. Leydig cells are interstitial cells occupying 12% of the test volume. Their main function is to synthesize sex hormones among which are testosterone and progesterone. cAMP stimulates the synthesis of own testosterone and progesterone. The synthesis is increased by up to 30%
  • cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate) is a cyclic nucleotide. cGMP acts as a second messenger. It is very similar to cyclic AMP. They have similar mechanisms of action. This is the activation of intracellular protein kinases which are secreted into the pituitary and leads to increased synthesis of luteinizing hormone, prolactin and growth hormone.

Then, in the hypothalamus, D-aspartate improves the release of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.

GnRH induces the release of oxytocin and vasopressin and stimulates the synthesis of matrix RNA.

D-aspartate in the various cells in which it falls leads to the synthesis/ activation of proteins bearing signal and enzyme functions. Such are the proteins: StAR, cAMP, cGMP.

A problem with the high levels of testosterone is the enzyme aromatase. Its function is to turn excess testosterone into estrogen and it does it quickly.

This means that self-administration of D-aspartate in the absence of aromatase inhibitors is meaningless.

Side effects when taking D-aspartate

D-aspartate and its chemical analogs are exotoxins, similar to monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (E951), because they use an identical mechanism of action – over-stimulating NMDA receptors.

Once the over-stimulation concerned has been reached, cell death of the affected receptor nerve cells is observed.

People with a hereditary predisposition to neuro degenerative diseases must avoid taking exotoxins.

What doses are recommended and how to take them?

The only scientifically validated dose in humans is 10 ml of 2.0 M sodium D-aspartate (3.12 g / 10 ml). The supplement must be taken with the vitamins: B6, B12 and folic acid for a period of 12 days.

If the dose is higher or not taken with the vitamins, taking D-aspartic acid leads to serious damage to the body. Destroyed NMDA cells are many times more and the risk of developing various diseases increases significantly.

It is important not to be taken longer than the indicated period.

What should D-Aspartic Acid not be combined with?

D-Aspartic Acid should not be received by pregnant women as well as breastfeeding woman and newborn babies. The risk of exotoxicity increases proportionally to the amounts of intake as well as the age of the receiving person.

It should not be taken by people with neuro degenerative diseases and predispositions as well.

In which sports supplements can we see D-Aspartic Acid?

D-aspartic acid can be often encountered in the majority of hormone and libido stimulants, as well as fertility supplements. It is usually combined with aromatase inhibitors(also used in the treatment of cancer), B-vitamins and other testosterone-stimulating agents.

You can also find it in combination with other products on the market: hormonal stimulants in combination with nitric oxide precursors and energy (creatine) precursors.

Alas, none of them have the dangerous exotoxic side effects written on the packages. You, however, are already aware of them. It is up to you to decide whether you want to use them or not.

Final Verdict

D-Aspartic Acid is a testosterone booster which became a hit on the supplement market. Research on animals has proven it to be extremely powerful but studies on humans are still in their early development.

This makes it rather dangerous compared to other testosterone boosters that have already received their amount of clinical studies and have been proven to be well-tolerated by the human organism.

With this said, the choice remains yours. I believe you should be familiar enough with this amino acid, it’s benefits, and it’s side effects. It certainly sounds and looks like a powerful supplement but I would suggest waiting for more detailed scientific facts before jumping straight into it. Furthermore, there are exceptional alternatives available. If, however, you feel like you need this testosterone booster, try consulting with your physician beforehand.